Experiments showing no effects of preparations
In contrast to the results presented on the other pages, there also are experiments in which no effects of biodynamic preparations occured, although the same experimental plants were used or the experimental conditions were quite similar. Simple explanations for absent effects are not recognizable.
To give a complete impression of the research on preparations, several examples of such experiments are listed below. Possibly, suggestions for future investigations may be derived from this.
- Beetroot: no effects on yield, compounds and storage losses. The yield level was common for this site
(Raupp & Oltmanns, 2002)
- Potatoes: no effect on the darkening (enzymatic browning) of potato extracts in three crop years
- Red clover: no effect on dry-mass yields and magnesium uptake (one-year results in a long-term trial)
- Wheat, spelt, sunflower in one year each: no effect on yields
(Berner et al., 2008), moreover
- no effects on soil organic matter (Corg) and soil microbial biomass (Cmic) after four years
(Berner et al., 2008).
- Experiments with farmyard manure or plant based organic manure: no effect of preparations (manures and field preparations) on soil organic carbon content (Corg) after 10 years
(Raupp & Oltmanns, 2006).
- Field experiment with manure piles: no effect of preparations on temperature, CO2-production, redox-potential and dehydrogenase activity in the piles
(Carpenter-Boggs et al., 2000).
- Comparison between a biodynamic and a conventional site: Both sites belong to the same experimental station. In one-year experiments, no effect of the different horn manure and horn silica treatments on the grain yield of spring wheat was found at both sites. Exceptions were found at the conventional site, where horn silica applied six times led to a yield decrease of 13%. Moreover, at the biodynamic site, horn manure applied six times and horn silica applied three times at high concentrations decreased yields of 12 %. At the conventional site, preparations did not show any effects under potatoes either. At the biodynamic site, the following treatments produced statistically significant yield increases at 9-10%: a) horn manure at high concentrations applied three times plus two times horn silica, b) three times horn manure plus four times horn silica and c) three times horn manure plus six times horn silica. The experiments also included treatments with stirred and unstirred water
- Experiment with the preparations in a biodynamic vineyard in California: A field trial with four replicates compared a treatment with application of the preparations and a control treatment without the preparations. All management practises were the same in all plots, except for the addition of the preparations in the biodynamic treatment. No differences were found in soil quality in the first six years
(Reeve et al., 2005).
BERNER, A.; HILDERMANN, I.; FLIEßBACH, A.; PFIFFNER, L.; NIGGLI, U.; MÄDER, P. (2008): Crop yield and soil fertility response to reduced tillage under organic management. Soil & Tillage Research 101, 89-96
CARPENTER-BOGGS, L.; REGANOLD, J.P.; KENNEDY, A.C. (2000): Effects of biodynamic preparations on compost development. Biol. Agric. & Hort. 17, 313-328
KOTSCHI, J. (1980): Untersuchung zur Wirkung der in der Biologisch-Dynamischen Wirtschaftsweise verwendeten Spritzpräparate "500" und "501" auf landwirtschaftliche Kulturpflanzen. PhD thesis Univ. Giessen
RAUPP, J. (2000): Magnesium contents in red clover and in soil with farmyard manure compared to mineral fertilization. In: Alföldi, Th.; Lockeretz, W.; Niggli, U. (eds.), Proc. 13th Int. IFOAM Sci. Conf., Basel; vdf Hochschulverlag (ETH Zürich); p. 38
RAUPP, J. (2002): Enzymatic browning of potatoes is greatly reduced with organic fertilization compared to mineral fertilization. Proc. 14th IFOAM Organic World Congress, 21-24 August 2002, Victoria, Canada; p. 67
RAUPP, J.; OLTMANNS, M. (2002): Ertrag, Inhaltsstoffe und Lagerfähigkeit von Rote Bete nach Rottemist- oder Mineraldüngung. Mitt. Ges. Pflanzenbauwiss. 14, 253-254
RAUPP, J.; OLTMANNS, M. (2006): Farmyard manure, plant based organic fertilisers, inorganic fertiliser - which sustains soil organic matter best? Aspects of Applied Biology 79, 273-276
REEVE, J.R.; CARPENTER-BOGGS, L.; REGANOLD, J.P.; YORK, A.L.; MCGOURTY, G.; MCCLOSKEY, L.P. (2005): Soil and winegrape quality in biodynamically and organically managed vineyards. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 56, 367-376